The problem of how the modern manager can be “democratic” in his relations with subordinates and at the same time maintain the necessary authority and control in the organization for which he is responsible has come into focuse increasingly in recent years.
Earlier in the century this problem was not so acutely felt. The successful executive was generally pictured as possessing intelligence, imagination, initiative, the capacity to make rapid (and generally wise) decisions, and the ability to inspire subordinates. People tended to think of hte world as being divided into “leaders” and “followers”.
Gradually, however, from the social sciences emerged the concept of “group dynamics” with its focus on members of hte group rather than solely on the leader. Research efforts of social scientists underscored the importance of employee involvement and participation in decision making. Evidence began to challenge the efficiency of highly directive leadership, and increasingly attention was paid to problems of motivation and human relations.